A modal window is an element that sits on top of the main window of an app or website. It creates a mode that disables the main window but keeps it visible with the modal window as a child window in front of it. Users must interact with the modal window before they can return to the parent application.
Modals and lightboxes should be used sparingly as they can hinder task completion when poorly implemented.
Follow the guidelines below when using (or deciding when to use) a modal or lightbox:
- Provide a way for users to escape by giving them the ability to quickly and clearly close the modal. The modal should always include an ‘x’, ‘cancel’, or ‘close’ option.
- Give context to the user with the modal title.
- Content should fit the modal. Consider using a new page if the modal requires a scroll bar.
- Use a lightbox effect (darken the background) when the modal is opened. This draws attention to the modal and indicates that the user cannot interact with the parent page.
- Let a user’s action, such as clicking a button, trigger the modal. Uninvited modals may surprise the user and result in frustration or a quick dismissal.
How it works
Before getting started with Bootstrap’s modal component, be sure to read the following as menu options have recently changed.
<body>so that modal content scrolls instead.
- Clicking on the modal “backdrop” will automatically close the modal.
- Bootstrap only supports one modal window at a time. Nested modals aren’t supported as we believe them to be poor user experiences.
- Modals use
position: fixed, which can sometimes be a bit particular about its rendering. Whenever possible, place your modal HTML in a top-level position to avoid potential interference from other elements. You’ll likely run into issues when nesting a
.modalwithin another fixed element.
- Once again, due to
position: fixed, there are some caveats with using modals on mobile devices. See our browser support docs for details.
- Due to how HTML5 defines its semantics, the
The animation effect of this component is dependent on the
prefers-reduced-motion media query. See Bootstrap’s reduced motion section of our accessibility documentation.
Below is a static modal example (meaning its
display have been overridden). Included are the modal header, modal body (required for
padding), and modal footer (optional). We ask that you include modal headers with dismiss actions whenever possible, or provide another explicit dismiss action.
Toggle a working modal demo by clicking the button below. It will slide down and fade in from the top of the page.
Scrolling long content
When modals become too long for the user’s viewport or device, they scroll independent of the page itself. Try the demo below to see what we mean.
You can also create a scrollable modal that allows scrolling the modal body by adding
.modal-dialog to vertically centre the modal.
Using the grid
Utilize the Bootstrap grid system within a modal by nesting
.container-fluid within the
.modal-body. Then, use the normal grid system classes as you would anywhere else.
Varying modal content
Have a bunch of buttons that all trigger the same modal with slightly different contents? Use
event.relatedTarget and HTML
data-* attributes (possibly via jQuery to vary the contents of the modal depending on which button was clicked.
$modal-fade-transform variable determines the transform state of
.modal-dialog before the modal fade-in animation, the
$modal-show-transform variable determines the transform of
.modal-dialog at the end of the modal fade-in animation.
If you want for example a zoom-in animation, you can set
For modals that simply appear rather than fade in to view, remove the
.fade class from your modal markup.
If the height of a modal changes while it is open, you should call
$('#myModal').modal('handleUpdate') to readjust the modal’s position in case a scrollbar appears.
Be sure to add
aria-labelledby="...", referencing the modal title, to
role="document" to the
.modal-dialog itself. Additionally, you may give a description of your modal dialog with
Embedding YouTube videos
Modals have three optional sizes, available via modifier classes to be placed on a
.modal-dialog. These sizes kick in at certain breakpoints to avoid horizontal scrollbars on narrower viewports.
Our default modal without modifier class constitutes the “medium” size modal.
.modal-open to the
<body> to override default scrolling behaviour and generates a
.modal-backdrop to provide a click area for dismissing shown modals when clicking outside the modal.
Via data attributes
data-toggle="modal" on a controller element, like a button, along with a
href="#foo" to target a specific modal to toggle.
Call a modal with id
data-, as in
|backdrop||boolean or the string
||true||Includes a modal-backdrop element. Alternatively, specify
|keyboard||boolean||true||Closes the modal when escape key is pressed|
|focus||boolean||true||Puts the focus on the modal when initialized.|
|show||boolean||true||Shows the modal when initialized.|
Asynchronous methods and transitions
All API methods are asynchronous and start a transition. They return to the caller as soon as the transition is started but before it ends. In addition, a method call on a transitioning component will be ignored.
Activates your content as a modal. Accepts an optional options
Manually toggles a modal. Returns to the caller before the modal has actually been shown or hidden (i.e. before the
hidden.bs.modal event occurs).
Manually opens a modal. Returns to the caller before the modal has actually been shown (i.e. before the
shown.bs.modal event occurs).
Manually hides a modal. Returns to the caller before the modal has actually been hidden (i.e. before the
hidden.bs.modal event occurs).
Manually readjust the modal’s position if the height of a modal changes while it is open (i.e. in case a scrollbar appears).
Destroys an element’s modal.
Bootstrap’s modal class exposes a few events for hooking into modal functionality. All modal events are fired at the modal itself (i.e. at the
|show.bs.modal||This event fires immediately when the
|shown.bs.modal||This event is fired when the modal has been made visible to the user (will wait for CSS transitions to complete). If caused by a click, the clicked element is available as the
|hide.bs.modal||This event is fired immediately when the
|hidden.bs.modal||This event is fired when the modal has finished being hidden from the user (will wait for CSS transitions to complete).|